Supporters of unidimensional means concern the need for this type off category to the factor it is maybe not specific whether or not they offer a better comprehension of people behavior and they is unknown the picture ( Lukaszewski, 2010 22. Lukaszewski , W . ( 2010 ). Udreka zycia. [torment out of lifetime] . Sopot : Smak slowa . ). In their view, the research of their outcomes on the informal human life is a great deal more very important than pinpointing the sources of the latest FOPD, as in the research in line with the scary management principle (Solomon, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 2015). For this reason, it can be concluded that no matter how precisely i describe the object of the FOPD, two central affairs are an identical: that we experience anxiety and fact that from inside the most of the circumstances they inquiries passing-brand new fragility regarding people existence. In comparison, Yalom (2008b) thinks one demise anxiety try a combination of type of, literally certain, concerns, between which the main issue is driving a car out of individual annihilation-worries off ceasing to thrive. Inside look at, it’s genuine so you can suspect that both methods (unidimensional and you will multidimensional) do not ban each other but allow a better comprehension of other servings regarding people life where in fact the FOPD performs an enthusiastic extremely important setting. From inside the design of the FOPD, you can easily distinguish each other a general measurement and you can a great level of certain products which make it right up; the new issues that should be the focus have decided because of the expectations and also the reliability of tool put.
A comparison of your own obtainable classifications suggests, first, any particular one brand of FOPD (age
grams., anxiety about lifetime after passing, concern about the whole process of perishing or anxiety about the human body after passing) exists on their own of one’s implemented identification criterion, and you may subsequently, your brand of FOPD that will be celebrated because the independent inside that group is used in almost every other categories from the diversity out of far more broadly defined particular FOPD ( Ochsmann, 1993 29. Ochsmann , R . ( 1993 ). Anxiety vor tod und auch sterben. Beitrage zur thanato-psychologie. [concern about death and you may dying. Contributions to thanatopsychology ] . Gottingen : Hogrefe . ). Eg observations recommend a great hierarchical structure of the FOPD.
And there’s discrepancies throughout the literary works on the definition and you may design of your own FOPD, the goal of today’s studies was to consider it in the a nuanced method, towards the Furcht vor Tod und Sterben Fragebogen (Dying and you will Dying Stress Directory, FVTS) because the an empirical example. Way more especially, i hypothesised one (a) the newest inconsistencies and you may contradictory leads to prior look have been because of the current presence of all round concern about demise basis, and this can be meaningfully classified towards the specific different the latest FOPD; and you may (b) the newest FOPD manage turn out to has good hierarchical build. To check on whether the build of FVTS made up all round concern about death in addition to way more particular types of FOPD, we did an excellent bi-basis confirmatory grounds study. To check on whether or not the design of the FOPD is hierarchical into the character, we ran several exploratory structural picture habits as ideal during the Goldberg’s (2006) 13. Goldberg , L. R . ( 2006 ). Carrying it out most of the bass-ackwards: The introduction of this new hierarchical basis structures regarding the ideal down . Journal away from Search in the Character , forty , 347 – 358 . . top-down processes.
Players and process
The study was conducted in central, eastern and southern Poland on a group of 1217 people (602 women and 615 men) between 18 and 89 years of age ( M Decades = ; SD Age = ). The sample consisted of people in the following age ranges: between 18 and 23 years old ( M Age = ; SD Age = 1.79), constituting 35%; between 24 and 40 years old ( M Age = ; SD Age = 4.98), constituting 38%; between 41 and 59 years old ( M Age = ; SD Age = 4.95), constituting 16%; and over 60 years old ( M Age = ; SD Age = 5.74), constituting 3%. There was no data on age for 8% of the sample. Twenty-nine per cent of participants had a secondary education, 23% had an elementary education (17% of them were secondary school students) and 23% had a higher education. We did not obtain information on 25% of the participants’ education level.